(2022). The environmental impacts and health co-benefits of climate mitigation measures on household consumption in China.
The environmental impacts and health co-benefits of climate mitigation measures on household consumption in China
Household sector is a key sector for deploying climate mitigation strategy. Previous research has mainly focused on the impact analysis of mitigation measures at supply side. However, how to implement climate mitigation measures for household consumption activities and evaluate health co-benefits among different populations resulting from household consumption changes when conducting mitigation strategies is an unanswered research question. To answer this research question, the household sector is added into an integrated assessment framework, coupling the energy inventory data, a Greenhouse Gas and Air pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, a Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM), and a Health Economic Model. This integrated assessment framework is used to conduct an analysis of direct and indirect energy consumption of household activities, and health co-benefits of deploying mitigation strategies of household consumption. We then propose suggestions for improving policy making regarding household energy consumption. Abstract
Household energy consumption is divided into the direct and indirect. In this thesis, first, an analysis of household direct consumption activities and health co-benefits across age- and gender- specific populations, when deploying the clean energy transition for rural and urban households in China is conducted. Second, household indirect energy consumption is studied, and household consumption activities are classified into eight different categories: food; clothing; housing; household facilities articles and services (abbreviated as facilities); transport and communication services (transport); education; cultural and recreation services (education); medicine and medical services (health) and miscellaneous commodities and services (miscell). These categories are used to identify on which sources of energy consumption to put the emphasis of mitigation strategies, under the ongoing urbanization, in both rural and urban areas. Finally, implementing a mitigation strategy in household transport activities, to better know the potential health co-benefits across subpopulations when households adopt a “greener” mode of transport or switch to electric vehicles. A case study is done in Beijing, China, exploring mitigation scenarios through household transport pattern changes.
The findings of this thesis are: 1) the implementation of climate mitigation strategies in households’ direct and indirect consumption activities can potentially generate large health benefits and economic benefits, but the distribution of these co-benefits shows regional, provincial and gender- and age- heterogeneity. 2) During China's urbanization, energy consumption of household activities related to housing and transport are expected to increase several folds; to better deploy mitigation measures for household consumption activities, regions in the first wealth quintile have the highest average income should take up the responsibility of degrading its own consumption level, especially in the consumption of aspirational and opulent goods and services and improve its own industrial energy efficiency, especially in transport, storage and transport equipment and service sector. 3) When adopting climate mitigation strategies in households’ transport modes, a case study done in Beijing, China, finds that the combination of walking, cycling and use of public transport (abbreviated as “green” transport) and electric vehicles, can generate the largest health co-benefits, with the increased use of green transport having the highest impact.
This study provides new insights into the climate mitigation measures on Chinese household consumption activities and their health co-benefits across different age and gender groups at the national/regional/provincial level. Taking into account different social groups’ benefits and disadvantages for the policy making is necessary to increase the environmental justice.
Lu C, Venevsky S, Cao S
(2018). The effects of the China–Russia gas deal on energy consumption, carbon emission, and particulate matter pollution in China. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science
The effects of the China–Russia gas deal on energy consumption, carbon emission, and particulate matter pollution in China
After more than two decades of negotiation, the China–Russia gas deal represents a new era of energy cooperation between China and Russia. In total, this is a win–win deal for both sides. For China, the deal will decrease energy consumption and carbon emission but will not significantly influence air quality; for Russia, it will provide a new market for its gas resources. In this study, we calculated the energy consumption, carbon emission, and particulate matter pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) in China in 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 under four IPCC representative concentration pathways (RCPs 8.5, 6.0, 4.5, and 2.6). We found that energy consumption and carbon emission decreased under the gas deal in RCPs 8.5, 6.0, and 4.5, although the rate of decrease slowed over time; however, in RCP 2.6, the rate of decrease of energy consumption and emission increased over time. PM2.5 and PM10 emission showed similar trends but with increasing rate, although the gas deal would mitigate air pollution in the short term. Although China’s government hopes to reduce carbon and pollutant emission under the deal, our results suggest that additional mitigation measures will be necessary to achieve this goal. Nonetheless, the reduction in carbon emission suggests that the China–Russia gas deal provides a model that other countries can follow to slow climate change. Abstract