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Dr Lucy Rowland

Dr Lucy Rowland

Lecturer / NERC Independent Research Fellow

 4488

 01392 724488

 Laver Building 801c

 

Laver Building, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter, EX4 4QE, UK

Overview

I am a NERC independent research fellow and hold a lectureship position at the University of Exeter.  My research is focused on understanding how tropical forests respond to climate change. Drought and warming are predicted to be key threats to tropical forests under future climate scenarios. Currently however, vegetation models struggle to predict how tropical forests will respond to environmental change, largely because of a lack of mechanistic understanding concerning how trees respond to environmental stress.

My research has always worked at the interface between data collection and vegetation modelling.  Previously I completed a PhD titled 'Reducing uncertainty in predictions of the response of Amazonian forest to climate change' at the University of Edinburgh in 2013. Since my PhD I have completed two post-doctoral positions one in the University of Edinburgh focused on understanding how tree mortality risk is related to hydraulic and metabolic properties of tropical trees. My second position was based at the University of Exeter and focused on modelling drought-induced mortality in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), specifically focusing on how to introduce a representation of plant hydraulics and drought-induced tropical tree mortality into JULES.

My current research focuses on trying to understand how the process of ontogeny, or tree development, is altered by environmental stress, and in particular how this may alter tropical forest structure, function and the risk of forests transitioning into a new ecosystem type. The focal site of my current research is the longest running tropical drought experiment site in the world, located in Caxiuana National Reserve, Para State, Brazil. At this site, plastic panels have been used to exclude 50% of the incoming rainfall from a 1ha old growth tropical forest plot since 2002. At this unique site I have been conducting a range of physiological measurements which are aimed at determining if certain combinations of hydrological and metabolic traits put trees of particular sizes or species at greater risk of mortality from drought than others.  Using this site and others, my key focus is to understand if, and how, ecosystems can respond to environmental change.

Please see my blog for further details:

http://blogs.exeter.ac.uk/lucyrowland/

Broad research specialisms:

Tropical Forest, Climate change, Drought, Vegetation modelling, Eco-physiology, carbon dynamics, water dynamics.

Qualifications

BA Geography 2009, University of Oxford,
PhD – 2013 University of Edinburgh

Links

Research

Research interests

My Research is focused on understanding how tropical forests interact with their environment. I use a combination of both natural and experimental field observations, and vegetation modelling to investigate how shifts in environmental conditions cause the ecology and physiology of tropical forests to change. In particular my studies have focused on the effect of drought and climate warming on tropical rainforests.

My specific research areas include

  1. Determining how the interaction between the carbon and the water cycle within tropical environments change with shifting climate conditions.
  2. Understanding how drought influences mortality risk in tropical environments .
  3. Determining how tropical tree physiology is altered by changes in temperature, water & nutrient availability.

Please see my blog for further details:

http://blogs.exeter.ac.uk/lucyrowland/

Publications

Key publications | Publications by category | Publications by year

Publications by category


Journal articles

Rowland LM, da Costa A, Oliveira A, Oliveria R, Bittencourt P, Costa P, Giles A, Sosa A, Coughlin I, Godlee J, et al (In Press). Drought stress and tree size determine stem CO2 efflux in a tropical forest. New Phytologist Full text.
Rifai SW, Girardin CAJ, Berenguer E, Del Aguila-Pasquel J, Dahlsjö CAL, Doughty CE, Jeffery KJ, Moore S, Oliveras I, Riutta T, et al (In Press). ENSO Drives interannual variation of forest woody growth across the tropics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Eller CB, Rowland L, Oliveira RS, Bittencourt PRL, Barros FV, da Costa ACL, Meir P, Friend AD, Mencuccini M, Sitch S, et al (In Press). Modelling tropical forest responses to drought and El Niño with a stomatal optimization model based on xylem hydraulics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Malhi Y, Rowland L, Aragão LEOC, Fisher RA (In Press). New insights into the variability of the tropical land carbon cycle from the El Niño of 2015/2016. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Author URL.
Rowland LM, da Costa ACL, Oliveira AAR, Almeida SS, Ferreira LV, Malhi Y, Metcalfe DB, Mencuccini M, Grace J, Meir P, et al (In Press). Shock and stabilisation following long-term drought in tropical forest from 15 years of litterfall dynamics. Journal of Ecology Full text.
Meir P, Mencuccini M, Binks O, da Costa AL, Ferreira L, Rowland L (In Press). Short-term effects of drought on tropical forest do not fully predict impacts of repeated or long-term drought: gas exchange versus growth. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Eller CB, de V Barros F, Bittencourt PRL, Rowland L, Mencuccini M, Oliveira RS (In Press). Xylem hydraulic safety and construction costs determine tropical tree growth. Plant Cell Environ, 41(3), 548-562. Abstract.  Author URL.
Binks O, Mencuccini M, Rowland L, da Costa ACL, de Carvalho CJR, Bittencourt P, Eller C, Teodoro GS, Carvalho EJM, Soza A, et al (2019). Foliar water uptake in Amazonian trees: Evidence and consequences. Glob Chang Biol, 25(8), 2678-2690. Abstract.  Author URL.
Da Costa ACL, Silva JDA, De Oliveira AAR, Rowland L, Meir P, Rodrigues HJB, Da Costa CLR (2018). Average variability of temperature and relative humidity of the air in a tropical rain forest in the Brazilian Amazon. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi:Ciencias Humanas, 13(2), 261-269. Abstract.
Pennington RT, Lehmann CER, Rowland LM (2018). Tropical savannas and dry forests. Current Biology, 28(9), R541-R545. Abstract.  Full text.
Esquivel-Muelbert A, Galbraith D, Dexter KG, Baker TR, Lewis SL, Meir P, Rowland L, Costa ACLD, Nepstad D, Phillips OL, et al (2017). Biogeographic distributions of neotropical trees reflect their directly measured drought tolerances. Scientific Reports, 7(1).
da Costa ACL, Rowland L, Oliveira RS, Oliveira AAR, Binks OJ, Salmon Y, Vasconcelos SS, Junior JAS, Ferreira LV, Poyatos R, et al (2017). Stand dynamics modulate water cycling and mortality risk in droughted tropical forest. Global Change Biology, 24(1), 249-258. Full text.
Wagner FH, Hérault B, Bonal D, Stahl C, Anderson LO, Baker TR, Sebastian Becker G, Beeckman H, Boanerges Souza D, Cesar Botosso P, et al (2016). Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests. Biogeosciences, 13(8), 2537-2562. Abstract.
Binks O, Meir P, Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveira AAR, Ferreira L, Mencuccini M (2016). Limited acclimation in leaf anatomy to experimental drought in tropical rainforest trees. Tree Physiology, 36(12), 1550-1561.
Christoffersen BO, Gloor M, Fauset S, Fyllas NM, Galbraith DR, Baker TR, Kruijt B, Rowland L, Fisher RA, Binks OJ, et al (2016). Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro). Geoscientific Model Development, 9(11), 4227-4255. Abstract.
Christoffersen BO, Gloor M, Fauset S, Fyllas NM, Galbraith DR, Baker TR, Rowland L, Fisher RA, Binks OJ, Sevanto SA, et al (2016). Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro). Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, 1-60.
Binks O, Meir P, Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveira AAR, Ferreira L, Christoffersen B, Nardini A, Mencuccini M, et al (2016). Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought. New Phytologist, 211(2), 477-488.
Rowland L, Zaragoza-Castells J, Bloomfield KJ, Turnbull MH, Bonal D, Burban B, Salinas N, Cosio E, Metcalfe DJ, Ford A, et al (2016). Scaling leaf respiration with nitrogen and phosphorus in tropical forests across two continents. New Phytologist, 214(3), 1064-1077.
Girardin CAJ, Malhi Y, Doughty CE, Metcalfe DB, Meir P, del Aguila-Pasquel J, Araujo-Murakami A, da Costa ACL, Silva-Espejo JE, Farfán Amézquita F, et al (2016). Seasonal trends of Amazonian rainforest phenology, net primary productivity, and carbon allocation. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30(5), 700-715.
Anderegg WRL, Martinez-Vilalta J, Cailleret M, Camarero JJ, Ewers BE, Galbraith D, Gessler A, Grote R, Huang C-Y, Levick SR, et al (2016). When a Tree Dies in the Forest: Scaling Climate-Driven Tree Mortality to Ecosystem Water and Carbon Fluxes. Ecosystems, 19(6), 1133-1147.
Rowland L, Lobo-do-Vale RL, Christoffersen BO, Melém EA, Kruijt B, Vasconcelos SS, Domingues T, Binks OJ, Oliveira AAR, Metcalfe D, et al (2015). After more than a decade of soil moisture deficit, tropical rainforest trees maintain photosynthetic capacity, despite increased leaf respiration. Global Change Biology, 21(12), 4662-4672.
Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Galbraith DR, Oliveira RS, Binks OJ, Oliveira AAR, Pullen AM, Doughty CE, Metcalfe DB, Vasconcelos SS, et al (2015). Death from drought in tropical forests is triggered by hydraulics not carbon starvation. Nature
Atkin OK, Bloomfield KJ, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Asner GP, Bonal D, Bönisch G, Bradford MG, Cernusak LA, Cosio EG, et al (2015). Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits. New Phytologist, 206(2), 614-636. Abstract.
Rowland L, Harper A, Christoffersen BO, Galbraith DR, Imbuzeiro HMA, Powell TL, Doughty C, Levine NM, Malhi Y, Saleska SR, et al (2015). Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: Similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses. Geoscientific Model Development, 8(4), 1097-1110. Abstract.
Lin YS, Medlyn BE, Duursma RA, Prentice IC, Wang H, Baig S, Eamus D, De Dios VR, Mitchell P, Ellsworth DS, et al (2015). Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world. Nature Climate Change, 5(5), 459-464. Abstract.  Full text.
Meir P, Wood TE, Galbraith DR, Brando PM, Da Costa ACL, Rowland L, Ferreira LV (2015). Threshold Responses to Soil Moisture Deficit by Trees and Soil in Tropical Rain Forests: Insights from Field Experiments. BioScience, 65(9), 882-892.
Rowland L, Hill TC, Stahl C, Siebicke L, Burban B, Zaragoza-Castells J, Ponton S, Bonal D, Meir P, Williams M, et al (2014). Evidence for strong seasonality in the carbon storage and carbon use efficiency of an Amazonian forest. Global Change Biology, 20(3), 979-991.
Powell TL, Galbraith DR, Christoffersen BO, Harper A, Imbuzeiro HMA, Rowland L, Almeida S, Brando PM, da Costa ACL, Costa MH, et al (2013). Confronting model predictions of carbon fluxes with measurements of Amazon forests subjected to experimental drought. New Phytologist
da Costa ACL, Metcalfe DB, Doughty CE, de Oliveira AAR, Neto GFC, da Costa MC, Silva Junior JDA, Aragão LEOC, Almeida S, Galbraith DR, et al (2013). Ecosystem respiration and net primary productivity after 8-10 years of experimental through-fall reduction in an eastern Amazon forest. Plant Ecology and Diversity
Rowland L, Stahl C, Bonal D, Siebicke L, Williams M, Meir P (2013). The Response of Tropical Rainforest Dead Wood Respiration to Seasonal Drought. Ecosystems, 16(7), 1294-1309.
Rowland L, Malhi Y, Silva-Espejo JE, Farfán-Amézquita F, Halladay K, Doughty CE, Meir P, Phillips OL (2013). The sensitivity of wood production to seasonal and interannual variations in climate in a lowland Amazonian rainforest. Oecologia, 174(1), 295-306.

Chapters

Meir P, Shenkin A, Disney M, Rowland LM, Malhi Y, Herold M, da Costa ACL (2018). Plant Structure-Function Relationships and Woody Tissue Respiration: Upscaling to Forests from Laser-Derived Measurements. In  (Ed) lant Respiration: Metabolic Fluxes and Carbon Balance. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration (Including Bioenergy and Related Processes), Springer, 89-105.  Abstract.

Conferences

Rowland LM, Meir P, Mencuccini M, Binks OJ, da Costa ACL, Oliveria RS, Mercado L, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveria AAR, Christoffersen BO, et al (2016). Does inter-specific variation prevent division of tropical trees into drought sensitive and resistant groups?. Association of tropical Biology and Conservation. 19th - 23rd Jun 2016. Abstract.
Rowland LM, da Costa ACL, Oliveira RS, Binks OJ, Mercado L, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveira AAR, Salmon Y, Ferreira LV, Sitch S, et al (2016). Is sap flow a good indicator of drought-induced mortality risk in tropical rainforest. Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation. 19th - 23rd Jun 2016. Abstract.

Publications by year


In Press

Rowland LM, da Costa A, Oliveira A, Oliveria R, Bittencourt P, Costa P, Giles A, Sosa A, Coughlin I, Godlee J, et al (In Press). Drought stress and tree size determine stem CO2 efflux in a tropical forest. New Phytologist Full text.
Rifai SW, Girardin CAJ, Berenguer E, Del Aguila-Pasquel J, Dahlsjö CAL, Doughty CE, Jeffery KJ, Moore S, Oliveras I, Riutta T, et al (In Press). ENSO Drives interannual variation of forest woody growth across the tropics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Eller CB, Rowland L, Oliveira RS, Bittencourt PRL, Barros FV, da Costa ACL, Meir P, Friend AD, Mencuccini M, Sitch S, et al (In Press). Modelling tropical forest responses to drought and El Niño with a stomatal optimization model based on xylem hydraulics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Malhi Y, Rowland L, Aragão LEOC, Fisher RA (In Press). New insights into the variability of the tropical land carbon cycle from the El Niño of 2015/2016. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Author URL.
Rowland LM, da Costa ACL, Oliveira AAR, Almeida SS, Ferreira LV, Malhi Y, Metcalfe DB, Mencuccini M, Grace J, Meir P, et al (In Press). Shock and stabilisation following long-term drought in tropical forest from 15 years of litterfall dynamics. Journal of Ecology Full text.
Meir P, Mencuccini M, Binks O, da Costa AL, Ferreira L, Rowland L (In Press). Short-term effects of drought on tropical forest do not fully predict impacts of repeated or long-term drought: gas exchange versus growth. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 373(1760). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Eller CB, de V Barros F, Bittencourt PRL, Rowland L, Mencuccini M, Oliveira RS (In Press). Xylem hydraulic safety and construction costs determine tropical tree growth. Plant Cell Environ, 41(3), 548-562. Abstract.  Author URL.

2019

Binks O, Mencuccini M, Rowland L, da Costa ACL, de Carvalho CJR, Bittencourt P, Eller C, Teodoro GS, Carvalho EJM, Soza A, et al (2019). Foliar water uptake in Amazonian trees: Evidence and consequences. Glob Chang Biol, 25(8), 2678-2690. Abstract.  Author URL.

2018

Da Costa ACL, Silva JDA, De Oliveira AAR, Rowland L, Meir P, Rodrigues HJB, Da Costa CLR (2018). Average variability of temperature and relative humidity of the air in a tropical rain forest in the Brazilian Amazon. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi:Ciencias Humanas, 13(2), 261-269. Abstract.
Meir P, Shenkin A, Disney M, Rowland LM, Malhi Y, Herold M, da Costa ACL (2018). Plant Structure-Function Relationships and Woody Tissue Respiration: Upscaling to Forests from Laser-Derived Measurements. In  (Ed) lant Respiration: Metabolic Fluxes and Carbon Balance. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration (Including Bioenergy and Related Processes), Springer, 89-105.  Abstract.
Pennington RT, Lehmann CER, Rowland LM (2018). Tropical savannas and dry forests. Current Biology, 28(9), R541-R545. Abstract.  Full text.

2017

Esquivel-Muelbert A, Galbraith D, Dexter KG, Baker TR, Lewis SL, Meir P, Rowland L, Costa ACLD, Nepstad D, Phillips OL, et al (2017). Biogeographic distributions of neotropical trees reflect their directly measured drought tolerances. Scientific Reports, 7(1).
da Costa ACL, Rowland L, Oliveira RS, Oliveira AAR, Binks OJ, Salmon Y, Vasconcelos SS, Junior JAS, Ferreira LV, Poyatos R, et al (2017). Stand dynamics modulate water cycling and mortality risk in droughted tropical forest. Global Change Biology, 24(1), 249-258. Full text.

2016

Wagner FH, Hérault B, Bonal D, Stahl C, Anderson LO, Baker TR, Sebastian Becker G, Beeckman H, Boanerges Souza D, Cesar Botosso P, et al (2016). Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests. Biogeosciences, 13(8), 2537-2562. Abstract.
Rowland LM, Meir P, Mencuccini M, Binks OJ, da Costa ACL, Oliveria RS, Mercado L, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveria AAR, Christoffersen BO, et al (2016). Does inter-specific variation prevent division of tropical trees into drought sensitive and resistant groups?. Association of tropical Biology and Conservation. 19th - 23rd Jun 2016. Abstract.
Rowland LM, da Costa ACL, Oliveira RS, Binks OJ, Mercado L, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveira AAR, Salmon Y, Ferreira LV, Sitch S, et al (2016). Is sap flow a good indicator of drought-induced mortality risk in tropical rainforest. Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation. 19th - 23rd Jun 2016. Abstract.
Binks O, Meir P, Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveira AAR, Ferreira L, Mencuccini M (2016). Limited acclimation in leaf anatomy to experimental drought in tropical rainforest trees. Tree Physiology, 36(12), 1550-1561.
Christoffersen BO, Gloor M, Fauset S, Fyllas NM, Galbraith DR, Baker TR, Kruijt B, Rowland L, Fisher RA, Binks OJ, et al (2016). Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro). Geoscientific Model Development, 9(11), 4227-4255. Abstract.
Christoffersen BO, Gloor M, Fauset S, Fyllas NM, Galbraith DR, Baker TR, Rowland L, Fisher RA, Binks OJ, Sevanto SA, et al (2016). Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro). Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, 1-60.
Binks O, Meir P, Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Vasconcelos SS, de Oliveira AAR, Ferreira L, Christoffersen B, Nardini A, Mencuccini M, et al (2016). Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought. New Phytologist, 211(2), 477-488.
Rowland L, Zaragoza-Castells J, Bloomfield KJ, Turnbull MH, Bonal D, Burban B, Salinas N, Cosio E, Metcalfe DJ, Ford A, et al (2016). Scaling leaf respiration with nitrogen and phosphorus in tropical forests across two continents. New Phytologist, 214(3), 1064-1077.
Girardin CAJ, Malhi Y, Doughty CE, Metcalfe DB, Meir P, del Aguila-Pasquel J, Araujo-Murakami A, da Costa ACL, Silva-Espejo JE, Farfán Amézquita F, et al (2016). Seasonal trends of Amazonian rainforest phenology, net primary productivity, and carbon allocation. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30(5), 700-715.
Anderegg WRL, Martinez-Vilalta J, Cailleret M, Camarero JJ, Ewers BE, Galbraith D, Gessler A, Grote R, Huang C-Y, Levick SR, et al (2016). When a Tree Dies in the Forest: Scaling Climate-Driven Tree Mortality to Ecosystem Water and Carbon Fluxes. Ecosystems, 19(6), 1133-1147.

2015

Rowland L, Lobo-do-Vale RL, Christoffersen BO, Melém EA, Kruijt B, Vasconcelos SS, Domingues T, Binks OJ, Oliveira AAR, Metcalfe D, et al (2015). After more than a decade of soil moisture deficit, tropical rainforest trees maintain photosynthetic capacity, despite increased leaf respiration. Global Change Biology, 21(12), 4662-4672.
Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Galbraith DR, Oliveira RS, Binks OJ, Oliveira AAR, Pullen AM, Doughty CE, Metcalfe DB, Vasconcelos SS, et al (2015). Death from drought in tropical forests is triggered by hydraulics not carbon starvation. Nature
Atkin OK, Bloomfield KJ, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Asner GP, Bonal D, Bönisch G, Bradford MG, Cernusak LA, Cosio EG, et al (2015). Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits. New Phytologist, 206(2), 614-636. Abstract.
Rowland L, Harper A, Christoffersen BO, Galbraith DR, Imbuzeiro HMA, Powell TL, Doughty C, Levine NM, Malhi Y, Saleska SR, et al (2015). Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: Similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses. Geoscientific Model Development, 8(4), 1097-1110. Abstract.
Lin YS, Medlyn BE, Duursma RA, Prentice IC, Wang H, Baig S, Eamus D, De Dios VR, Mitchell P, Ellsworth DS, et al (2015). Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world. Nature Climate Change, 5(5), 459-464. Abstract.  Full text.
Meir P, Wood TE, Galbraith DR, Brando PM, Da Costa ACL, Rowland L, Ferreira LV (2015). Threshold Responses to Soil Moisture Deficit by Trees and Soil in Tropical Rain Forests: Insights from Field Experiments. BioScience, 65(9), 882-892.

2014

Rowland L, Hill TC, Stahl C, Siebicke L, Burban B, Zaragoza-Castells J, Ponton S, Bonal D, Meir P, Williams M, et al (2014). Evidence for strong seasonality in the carbon storage and carbon use efficiency of an Amazonian forest. Global Change Biology, 20(3), 979-991.

2013

Powell TL, Galbraith DR, Christoffersen BO, Harper A, Imbuzeiro HMA, Rowland L, Almeida S, Brando PM, da Costa ACL, Costa MH, et al (2013). Confronting model predictions of carbon fluxes with measurements of Amazon forests subjected to experimental drought. New Phytologist
da Costa ACL, Metcalfe DB, Doughty CE, de Oliveira AAR, Neto GFC, da Costa MC, Silva Junior JDA, Aragão LEOC, Almeida S, Galbraith DR, et al (2013). Ecosystem respiration and net primary productivity after 8-10 years of experimental through-fall reduction in an eastern Amazon forest. Plant Ecology and Diversity
Rowland L, Stahl C, Bonal D, Siebicke L, Williams M, Meir P (2013). The Response of Tropical Rainforest Dead Wood Respiration to Seasonal Drought. Ecosystems, 16(7), 1294-1309.
Rowland L, Malhi Y, Silva-Espejo JE, Farfán-Amézquita F, Halladay K, Doughty CE, Meir P, Phillips OL (2013). The sensitivity of wood production to seasonal and interannual variations in climate in a lowland Amazonian rainforest. Oecologia, 174(1), 295-306.

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