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Dr Timothy Hill

Dr Timothy Hill

Professor in Physical Geography


 Amory D438b


Amory Building, University of Exeter, Rennes Drive, Exeter, EX4 4RJ , UK


My personal website and blog can be found here:

Tim completed his PhD at The University of Edinburgh in 2003. The PhD was funded by the NERC Centre for Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics (CTCD) and developed “A modelling approach to carbon, water and energy feedbacks and interactions across the land-atmosphere interface”.

His first post-doc position focused on the development of airborne flux measurements and remote sensing as part of the NERC funded project Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at mUltiple Scales (ABACUS). During the ABACUS project, Tim developed multi-spatial up-scaling techniques that could be applied to ecological processes and carbon fluxes.

Tim’s second postdoc was co-funded by the NERC National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO) and the European Space Agency (ESA) with the aim of improving the process representation in terrestrial carbon cycle models using satellite observations and in particular the use of space-borne radar to detect deforestation.

Tim joined the University of St Andrews as a lecturer in Environmental Change in 2011, where he developed his research interests into land-use change impacts on the carbon cycle. Tim moved to Exeter in 2015 to take up the position of Senior Lecturer in Physical Geography. He has ongoing research interests in peatland, saltmarsh, agricultural and oil palm ecosystems. In order to understand these systems he uses modelling, data assimilation, satellite observations, field measurements and is active in developing new measurement techniques.

Broad research specialisms:

  • Impacts of land-use change on the carbon cycle.
  • Land-atmosphere interactions, with a focus on exchanges of carbon dioxide and other trace gases.


PhD in Land Atmosphere Interactions
MSci in Physics and Astronomy


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Journal articles

Fawcett D, Benjamin A, Hill T, Khoon L, Bennie JJ, Anderson K (In Press). Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) derived structure-from-motion photogrammetry point clouds for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) canopy segmentation and height estimation. International Journal of Remote Sensing
Manning FC, Kho LK, Hill TC, Nyawai TN, Rumpang E, Teh YA (2024). Spatial variations in heterotrophic respiration from oil palm plantations on tropical peat soils. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 6
Bateman IJ, Anderson K, Argles A, Belcher C, Betts RA, Binner A, Brazier RE, Cho FHT, Collins RM, Day BH, et al (2023). A review of planting principles to identify the right place for the right tree for ‘net zero plus’ woodlands: Applying a place-based natural capital framework for sustainable, efficient and equitable (SEE) decisions. People and Nature, 5(2), 271-301. Abstract.
Barros FDV, Lewis K, Robertson AD, Pennington RT, Hill TC, Matthews C, Lira-Martins D, Mazzochini GG, Oliveira RS, Rowland L, et al (2023). Cost-effective restoration for carbon sequestration across Brazil's biomes. Science of the Total Environment, 876, 162600-162600.
Zhu S, Olde L, Lewis K, Quaife T, Cardenas L, Loick N, Xu J, Hill T (2023). Eddy covariance fluxes over managed ecosystems extrapolated to field scales at fine spatial resolutions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 342 Abstract.
Zhu S, McCalmont J, Cardenas LM, Cunliffe AM, Olde L, Signori-Müller C, Litvak ME, Hill T (2023). Gap-filling carbon dioxide, water, energy, and methane fluxes in challenging ecosystems: Comparing between methods, drivers, and gap-lengths. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 332 Abstract.
McCalmont J, Kho LK, Teh YA, Chocholek M, Rumpang E, Rowland L, Basri MHA, Hill T (2023). Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation on tropical peatland in South East Asia: Photosynthetic response to soil drainage level for mitigation of soil carbon emissions. Sci Total Environ, 858(Pt 1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Fawcett D, Cunliffe AM, Sitch S, O’Sullivan M, Anderson K, Brazier RE, Hill TC, Anthoni P, Arneth A, Arora VK, et al (2022). Assessing Model Predictions of Carbon Dynamics in Global Drylands. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10 Abstract.
Cardenas LM, Olde L, Loick N, Griffith B, Hill T, Evans J, Cowan N, Segura C, Sint H, Harris P, et al (2022). CO2 fluxes from three different temperate grazed pastures using Eddy covariance measurements. Science of the Total Environment, 831, 154819-154819.
Lewis K, Barros FDV, Moonlight PW, Hill TC, Oliveira RS, Schmidt IB, Sampaio AB, Pennington RT, Rowland L (2022). Identifying hotspots for ecosystem restoration across heterogeneous tropical savannah-dominated regions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 378(1867). Abstract.
Lewis K, de V Barros F, Cure MB, Davies CA, Furtado MN, Hill TC, Hirota M, Martins DL, Mazzochini GG, Mitchard ETA, et al (2022). Mapping native and non-native vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado using freely available satellite products. Sci Rep, 12(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Zhu S, Clement R, McCalmont J, Davies CA, Hill T (2022). Stable gap-filling for longer eddy covariance data gaps: a globally validated machine-learning approach for carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 314 Abstract.
Cunliffe AM, Boschetti F, Clement R, Sitch S, Anderson K, Duman T, Zhu S, Schlumpf M, Litvak ME, Brazier RE, et al (2022). Strong Correspondence in Evapotranspiration and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Between Different Eddy Covariance Systems Enables Quantification of Landscape Heterogeneity in Dryland Fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 127(8).
Lees KJ, Khomik M, Quaife T, Clark JM, Hill T, Klein D, Ritson J, Artz RRE (2021). Assessing the reliability of peatland GPP measurements by remote sensing: from plot to landscape scale. Science of the Total Environment, 766 Abstract.
McCalmont J, Kho LK, Teh YA, Lewis K, Chocholek M, Rumpang E, Hill T (2021). Short- and long-term carbon emissions from oil palm plantations converted from logged tropical peat swamp forest. Glob Chang Biol, 27(11), 2361-2376. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hartley IP, Hill TC, Chadburn SE, Hugelius G (2021). Temperature effects on carbon storage are controlled by soil stabilisation capacities. Nature Communications, 12(1). Abstract.
Lewis K, Rumpang E, Kho LK, McCalmont J, Teh YA, Gallego-Sala A, Hill TC (2020). An assessment of oil palm plantation aboveground biomass stocks on tropical peat using destructive and non-destructive methods. Sci Rep, 10(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Sabater AM, Ward HC, Hill TC, Gornall JL, Wade TJ, Evans JG, Prieto‐Blanco A, Disney M, Phoenix GK, Williams M, et al (2020). Transpiration from subarctic deciduous woodlands: Environmental controls and contribution to ecosystem evapotranspiration. Ecohydrology, 13(3). Abstract.
Lees K, quaife T, Artz R, Sottocornola M, Kiely G, Hambley G, Hill T, Suanders M, Cowie N, Ritson J, et al (2019). A model of gross primary productivity based on satellite data suggests formerly afforested peatlands undergoing restoration regain full photosynthesis capacity after five to ten years. Journal of Environmental Management,, 246, 594-604.
Manning F, Hill T, Lip KK, Teh YA, cornulier T (2019). Carbon Emissions from Oil Palm Plantations on Peat Soil. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
Hambley G, Andersen R, Levy P, Saunders M, Cowie NR, Teh YA, Hill TC (2019). Net ecosystem exchange from two formerly afforested peatlands undergoing restoration in the Flow Country of northern Scotland. MIRES AND PEAT, 23  Author URL.
Subke JA, Moody CS, Hill TC, Voke N, Toet S, Ineson P, Teh YA (2018). Rhizosphere activity and atmospheric methane concentrations drive variations of methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 116, 323-332. Abstract.
Stoy PC, Williams M, Evans JG, Prieto-Blanco A, Disney M, Hill TC, Ward HC, Wade TJ, Street LE (2018). Upscaling Tundra CO<sub>2</sub> Exchange from Chamber to Eddy Covariance Tower. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 45(2), 275-284.
Hill TC, Chocholek M, Clement R (2016). The case for increasing the statistical power of eddy covariance ecosystem studies: why, where and how?. Global Change Biology
Hill TC, Ryan CM, Williams M (2015). A framework for estimating forest disturbance intensity from successive remotely sensed biomass maps: moving beyond average biomass loss estimates. Carbon Balance and Management, 10 Abstract.
Hartley IP, Hill TC, Wade TJ, Clement RJ, Moncrieff JB, Prieto-Blanco A, Disney MI, Huntley B, Williams M, Howden NJK, et al (2015). Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach. Global Change Biology, 21(10), 3712-3725. Abstract.
Hartley IP, Hill TC, Wade TJ, Clement RJ, Moncrieff JB, Prieto-Blanco A, Disney MI, Huntley B, Williams M, Howden NJK, et al (2015). Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach. Glob Chang Biol, 21(10), 3712-3725. Abstract.  Author URL.
Ryan CM, Williams M, Hill TC, Grace J, Woodhouse IH (2014). Assessing the Phenology of Southern Tropical Africa: a Comparison of Hemispherical Photography, Scatterometry, and Optical/NIR Remote Sensing. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52(1), 519-528.
Rowland L, Hill TC, Stahl C, Siebicke L, Burban B, Zaragoza‐Castells J, Ponton S, Bonal D, Meir P, Williams M, et al (2014). Evidence for strong seasonality in the carbon storage and carbon use efficiency of an Amazonian forest. Global Change Biology, 20(3), 979-991. Abstract.
Hill TC, Williams M, Bloom AA, Mitchard ETA, Ryan CM (2013). Are Inventory Based and Remotely Sensed Above-Ground Biomass Estimates Consistent?. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e74170-e74170.
Street LE, Stoy PC, Sommerkorn M, Fletcher BJ, Sloan VL, Hill TC, Williams M (2012). Seasonal bryophyte productivity in the sub‐Arctic: a comparison with vascular plants. Functional Ecology, 26(2), 365-378. Abstract.
Williams M, Hill TC, Ryan CM (2012). Using biomass distributions to determine probability and intensity of tropical forest disturbance. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 6(1), 87-99.
Hill TC, Quaife T, Williams M (2011). A data assimilation method for using low-resolution Earth observation data in heterogeneous ecosystems. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 116  Author URL.
Hill TC, Williams M, Woodward FI, Moncrieff JB (2011). Constraining ecosystem processes from tower fluxes and atmospheric profiles. Ecological Applications, 21(5), 1474-1489.
Ryan CM, Hill T, Woollen E, Ghee C, Mitchard E, Cassells G, Grace J, Woodhouse IH, Williams M (2011). Quantifying small‐scale deforestation and forest degradation in African woodlands using radar imagery. Global Change Biology, 18(1), 243-257. Abstract.
Hill TC, Ryan E, Williams M (2011). The use of <scp><scp>CO</scp><sub>2</sub></scp> flux time series for parameter and carbon stock estimation in carbon cycle research. Global Change Biology, 18(1), 179-193. Abstract.
Hill TC, Williams M, Moncrieff JB (2008). Modeling feedbacks between a boreal forest and the planetary boundary layer. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D15). Abstract.

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Office Hours:

I have two office hours:

Monday: 11:30 - 12:30 (virtual via TEAMS)

Friday: 09:00-10:00 (virtual via TEAMS). ### Friday the 28th January 2022 @ 11:30 - 12:30 instead, please email to book this session)

Please book both using this link If the times don't work, please feel free to email me to arrange.



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